History & Civics - Class XII Resources

The following list of online resources are provided as a sample of curated resources. New resources shall be added as we come across interesting and relevant online materials.

1. Je Khenpo and the Roles of Jekhenpo in the Choe-sid System

Description:  It is an article written by Karma Phuntsho (Dr) which highlights on the institution of the title of Jekhenpo, modalities of becoming a Je Khenpo and the roles of Jekhenpo in the Choe-sid System.

Core Concepts:  Je Khenpo as a spiritual head in choe-sid system and modalities of becoming a Je Khenpo. 

Link: Webpage on Je Khenpo of Bhutan

2. Role played by Religious Body Headed by the Jekhenpo in Fighting the Pandemics

Description:  It is an article on ‘Bhutan and the Covid-19 Pandemics’ covered by the Kuensel. It talks about the role played by the religious body headed by the Jekhenpo in fighting the pandemics. This article imparts the value of existing harmoniously irrespective of social status or responsibilities.

Core Concepts:  Special prayers and kurims conducted by the Zhung Dratshang to invoke Sangay Menlha and other protecting deities to prevent spread of pandemic and keep our country safe.

Link: Webpage on Bhutan and the Covid-19

3. The Desi-s of Bhutan

Description:  This article gives brief information on the etymology of the term Desi and their roles in the society in line with the Choe-sid System.

Core Concepts:  Desi as a secular head, run the state administration, collect taxes and plan military defense and offences as a Desi. 

Link: Webpage on the Desi-s of Bhutan

4. Modalities of Becoming a Desi

Description:  It is an online Bhutan History textbook for class XII. The page no. 7-9 of the text presents the different modalities of becoming a Desi, with examples.

Core Concepts:  Modalities of becoming a Desi such as appointment by Zhabdrung, appointment by Monastic body, Appointment by influential individuals and Assassination through assassination and coup detat.

Link: PDF on History of Bhutan, a supplementary text for class XII 

5. Ninth Je Khenpo Sakya Rinchen

Description:  This article is contributed by Jagar Dorji (Dr), the former member of the National Council of Bhutan. It talks about the early years and the transformational reforms of the Je Khenpo Sakya Rinchen as the spiritual head in the Choe-sid System.

Core Concepts:  The transformational contributions of Je Sakya Rinchen to keep the continuity and preserve the Drukpa tradition in the country.

Link: Webpage on Ninth Je Khenpo Sakya Rinchen 

6. Thirteenth Je Khenpo Yonten Thaye

Description:  Written by Karma Rigzin, a researcher at the Language and Cultural Studies highlights on the significant contributions made by the Je Yonten Thaye in rebuilding of dzong and establishment of monastery.

Core Concepts:  Rebuilding the Tashichhodzong and Punakha dzongs which were damaged by fire, initiation of teachings to the followers and the establishment of Dodedrak monastery as a transformational contributions of Je Khenpo Yonten Thaye to keep the continuity and preserve the Drukpa tradition in the country.

Link: Webpage on Thirteenth Je Khenpo Yonten Thaye 

7. Twenty Fifth Je khenpo Sherab Gyaltshen

Description:  It talks about the transformational contributions of twenty fifth Je khenpo Sherab Gyaltshen in enlarging the Kyichu Lhakhang which was visited and blessed by many famous Buddhist figures.

Core Concepts:  Transformational contributions of Je Khenpo Sherab Gyeltshen to keep the continuity and preserve the Drukpa tradition in the country.

Link: Webpage on twenty fifth Je Khenpo Sherab Gyeltshen

8. His Holiness 68th Je khenpo Tenzin Dendup Rinpoche’s Zeynam

Description:  It is a series of documentary on 68th Jekhenpo’s Zeynam presented by BBS 2 on YouTube. The video presents the early years of his holiness and the contributions made as a spiritual head of the country, such as the institution of Tango as the first-ever Buddhist institute for higher studies and meditation Centre at Chari.

Core Concepts:  Transformational contributions of Je Khenpo Tenzin Dendup Rinpoche to keep the continuity and preserve the Drukpa tradition in the country.

Link: Webpage on his holiness 68th Je khenpo Zeynam

9. Biography of 69th Je Khenpo

Description:  It is a series of documentary on the biography of 69th Je khenpo presented by the BBS 2 on YouTube. It provides detailed information on the early years and the major contributions made by the late Je khenpo in preserving the Drukpa doctrine in Bhutan.

Core Concepts:  Transformational contributions of Je Geshe Geduen Rinchen Rinpoche to keep the continuity and preserve the Drukpa tradition in the country.

Link: Video on biography of 69th Je Khenpo

10. The Fourth Druk Desi

Description: This article mainly talks about the early years and the major religious and political transformational contributions of the Fourth Desi. Amongst many, it highlights on the identities created by the Desi, which form an integral part of the history, culture and the distinctive identity of the Bhutanese people

Core Concepts:  Transformational contributions of Desi Tenzin Rabgye, religious and political contributions.

Link: Webpage on the fourth Druk Desi

11. Jamgoen Ngawang Gyaltshen

Description: Jamgoen Ngawang Gyaltshen as an indispensable political and religious figure in Bhutan is presented in this article.

Core Concepts:  Transformational contributions of Desi Jamgoen Ngawang Gyaltshen.

Link: Webpage on Jamgoen Ngawang Gyaltshen

12. Roles Played by the Desi Sherub Wangchuk

Description: The article on “Bhutanese rulers learn the art of diplomacy” talks about the roles played by the Desi Sherub Wangchuk as a peace maker.

Core Concepts:  Transformational contributions of Desi Sherub Wangchuk.

Link: Webpage on Bhutan as recognised by history

13. Establishment of the Choe-sid System by Zhabdrung

Description: It is an online Bhutan History textbook for class XII. The page no. 3-5 of the text presents the structure and the historical significance of the establishment of the Choe-sid system by Zhabdrung.

Core Concepts:  Evolution of the Choesid System in Bhutan.

Link: PDF on History of Bhutan, a supplementary text for class XII

14. Political Reforms

Description: It is an online Bhutan History textbook for class XII. The pages no. 22-24 of the text present the political reforms brought about by the Third Druk Gyalpo, such as the Tshogdu, the Lodroe Tshogde, the Lhengye Zhungtshog and the Judiciary. The pages 30-35 of the text presents the political reforms of the Fourth Druk Gyalpo; Council of Minister, Constitution, Royal Civil Service Commission and Decentralization.

Core Concepts:  Establishment of the Democratic Constitutional Monarchy with reference to the political reforms. 

Link: PDF on History of Bhutan, a supplementary text for class XII

15. Reforms Introduced by the Second Druk Gyalpo

Description: The page no. 36 of the online Bhutan history textbook of class X presents the reforms of the administration and the taxation system introduced by the Second Druk Gyalpo.

Core Concepts:  Streamlining of the district administration to create fair and just society and establishment of the Democratic Constitutional Monarchy with reference to the political reforms.

Link: PDF on History of Bhutan course book for class X

16. Constitution of the Kingdom of Bhutan

Description: This link contains the pdf version of the Constitution of Bhutan. The article 3 of the constitution of Kingdom of Bhutan provides in detail, the roles of the Monarch as a protector of all religion in enhancing social well being and harmony of the people.

Core Concepts:  Monarchy as a symbol of unity, Monarch as a protector of all religions in enhancing social wellbeing and harmony of the people, and article 3 of the constitution.

Link: PDF on Constitution of the Kingdom of Bhutan

17. Reforms of the Monarchs

Description: The different pages of Bhutan history textbook for class X present as follows; 30 & 31: Internal Reforms of the First Druk Gyalpo, 36: Taxation reforms of the Second Druk Gyalpo, 48: social reforms of the Third Druk Gyalpo, 65: Development goals of the Fourth Druk Gyalpo and 70 : Reforms of the Fourth Druk Gyalpo.

Core Concepts: Monarchy as a symbol of unity major social reforms of the Druk Gyalpo, Monarch as a protector of all religions in enhancing social wellbeing and harmony of the people.

Link: PDF on provisional edition, course book for class X

18. Economic Reforms Brought About by the Monarchs

Description: The link contains a copy of a book titled, “Leadership of the Wise Kings of Bhutan” written by Karma Ura. It provides information on the economic reforms brought about by the Druk Gyalpo Ugyen Wangchuck, Druk Gyalpo Jigme Wangchuck, Druk Gyalpo Jigme Dorji Wangchuck and His Majesty the King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck.

Core Concepts: Bhutan’s economic self-reliance in contemporary times with reference to the visions of the monarchs.

Link: PDF on Leadership of the Wise Kings of Bhutan by Karma Ura

19. Establishment of the Five Year Plans

Description: The pages 53 -56 of the textbook present the establishment of the Five Year Plan and the achievements of the first three Five Year Plans. The pages 70-71 present the commissioning of Hydro power project and exporting of electricity to neighbouring countries and encouragement of private sector in Bhutan as major economic reforms of the Fourth Druk Gyalpo.

Core Concepts: Significance of the establishment of the Five Year Plan by the Third Druk Gyalpo, Hydro power projects as a main source of income for Bhutan today, and Bhutan’s economic self-reliance in contemporary times with reference to the visions of the monarchs.

Link: PDF on History of Bhutan, provisional edition, course book for class X

20. Establishment of Five Year Plan and it's Outcomes  

Description: The pages 20-27 of the textbook present the establishment of the Five Year Plan and the objectives and outcomes of the first Five Year Plan.

Core Concepts: Outcomes of the establishment of the Five Year Plans,  and Bhutan’s economic self-reliance in contemporary times with reference to the visions of the monarchs.

Link: PDF on History of Bhutan, a supplementary text for class XII

21. Historical Background on Bhutan's Relation with Neighboring countries

Description: It provides information on the historical background on Bhutan’s relation with British India and Independent India. Pages 168-174 of the articles also highlight on Bhutan’s interaction with China from 17th century to 21st century.

Core Concepts: Bhutan’s interaction with the neighbouring countries and Impact of Bhutan’s political interactions. 

Link: PDF on economic and political relation between Bhutan and neighboring countries 

22. UN Reflects on Progress in Bhutan

Description: The Kuensel article published on September 18, 2020 talks about the major achievements of the UN in Bhutan. It also talks about the UN agencies’ focus of support to Bhutan in the years to come.

Core Concepts: Bhutan’s contribution to the UNO and merits of Bhutan’s membership to UNO.

Link: Webpage on UN reflects on progress in Bhutan

23. Financial Assistance by UN to Bhutan to Support the National Covid-19  

Description: The Kuensel article published on March 25, 2020 highlights on the financial assistance received by Bhutan to support the national covid-19 prepared and response, from the UN, as a result of being the member of the global organisation.

Core Concepts: Bhutan’s contribution to the UNO and merits of Bhutan’s membership to UNO.

Link: Webpage on UN in Bhutan contributes USD 

24. Establishment of BIMSTEC

Description: This page provides background and the establishment of BIMSTEC. It also contains the working modalities of the organisation, areas of focus, and other important publications.

Core Concepts: Bhutan’s contribution to BIMSTEC and contribution of BIMSTEC to Bhutan. 

Link: Webpage on BIMSTEC

25. Merits of Bhutan’s Membership to UNO

Description: The article published in the website of United Nation Bhutan, mainly talks about how Bhutan responded to gender based violence amid Covid-19 with the support from the agency of the UN, under the patronship of Her Majesty Gyalyum Sangay Choden Wangchuck. This article will help learners widen their knowledge on the merits of Bhutan’s membership to UNO.

Core Concepts: Merits of Bhutan’s membership to the UNO. 

Link: Webpage on United Nations Bhutan

26. Bhutan’s Membership to the Colombo Plan

Description: Published by the private newspaper The Bhutanese on 14/07/2018, it helps learners understand how Bhutan’s membership in Colombo Plan positively impacted in strengthening her relation with Australia.

Core Concepts: Bhutan’s membership to the Colombo Plan.

Link: Webpage on the person behind Bhutan’s inclusion in Colombo Plan

27. Merits of Bhutan’s Membership in the Colombo Plan

Description: Page numbers 5, 62, 120, 134, 216, 245 & 250 of the publication highlights on the contributions received by Bhutan in various fields from the developed member countries of the Colombo Plan.

Core Concepts: Merits of Bhutan’s membership in the Colombo Plan. 

Link: PDF on Colombo Plan’s contributions for the member countries

28. Bhutan’s Perspective on Regional Organisation

Description: Chapter 5 of the publication exposes learners to Bhutan’s Perspective on Regional Organisation such as ; Bhutan and SAARC, Significance of SAARC to Bhutan, Bhutan’s role in SAARC, and overview of Bhutan in SAARC today.

Core Concepts: Bhutan’s membership in the SAARC and Bhutan’s role in SAARC.

Link: PDF on economic and political relation between Bhutan and neighboring countries

29. Bhutan’s Role in Promoting Regional Peace and Prosperity in South Asia

Description: It contains the address of the first democratically elected Prime Minister of Bhutan Jigme Y. Thinley to the Asia Society. The Prime Minister in his address clearly mentions about Bhutan’s role in promoting regional peace and prosperity in South Asia particularly as a member of the SAARC.

Core Concepts: Bhutan’s contribution to the SAARC and contribution of SARRC to Bhutan. 

Link: Webpage on Bhutan’s role in promoting regional peace and prosperity in South Asia

30. Reasons for Bhutan’s Entry into Various International Organizations

Description: Pages 36 & 43-51 of the text present the background of the UNO & Bhutan’s entry into UNO, Bhutan and SAARC and Bhutan and NAM respectively.

Core Concepts: Reasons for Bhutan’s entry into UN, various SAARC summit attended by Bhutan and its outcomes and NAM summit attended by Bhutan and its outcomes.

Link: PDF on History of Bhutan, a supplementary text for class XII

31. Bird House Project

Description: The YouTube video present the Bird house project as a mini project initiated to make bird shelters by Lhomon Education students. It also present that the project is motivated to benefit birds and other beings to take shelter and to create an eco-friendly environment for humans and animals to live in harmony. This video help teacher provide a clear picture of what civil.

Core Concepts: Avenues for civic engagement in the community/ institutions. 

Link: Video on Bird House Project

32. Media Literacy

Description: It contains the five different media literary questions for kids to help them critically think about the media they consume and create.

Core Concepts: Ways to become critical consumers of media contents and demonstration of a sense of responsibility as producers and consumers of media content. 

Link: Webpage on five questions to ask about Media

33. Concept of Democracy and it's Merits and Demerits

Description: Page 9-13 of the text, present the concept of democracy, forms of democracy and advantages and disadvantages of democracy.

Core Concepts: Concept of democracy, merits and demerits of Democracy, and Bhutanese forms of democracy .

Link: PDF on Bhutan Civics, classes XI and XII

34. Making of the Constitution of the Kingdom of Bhutan

Description: Authored by Lyonpo Sonam Tobgye, the former Chief Justice of Bhutan, the article basically talks about the process of making the constitution of Bhutan like; Formation of Constitution Drafting Committee as per the Royal command, Setting objectives for drafting the Constitution, Principles, and drafting processes.

Core Concepts: Making the  Constitution of Kingdom of Bhutan and comparison of the origin of the Constitution of Bhutan with reference to any other Constitution.

Link: Webpage on the Constitution and Democracy in Bhutan

35. Political Reform Introduced by the Third Druk Gyalpo

Description: The political reforms of the Druk Gyalpos, making of the Constitution and significances of the Constitution are presented in p.g. 1-6 .

Core Concepts: Establishment of Democratic Constitutional Monarchy and significance of the Constitution of political reform introduced by the Third Druk Gyalpo as a basis for the Kingdom of Bhutan. 

Link: PDF on Bhutan Civics, classes IX and X

36. The Constitution of Bhutan

Description: The former Chief Justice of Bhutan Lyonpo Sonam Tobgye in his book THE CONSTITUTION OF BHUTAN: Principles and Philosophies provide a vivid picture on the birth and process of making the constitution of Bhutan. Lyonpo also gives the interpretations of all the sections and clauses of all 35 Articles of the Constitution.

Core Concepts: Structure of Constitution of Bhutan, relating the structure of the Constitution of Bhutan with any other country’s Constitution, and theories of interpretations. 

Link: PDF on The Constitution of Bhutan

37. Pema Lingpa’s Spiritual Contributions to building Bhutan as a Nation State

Description: In this YouTube video, Pawo Choyning Dorji talks about the legacy of Bhutan's greatest spiritual son Tertoen Pema Lingpa, at the 2017 Mountain Echoes Festival in Thimphu, Bhutan. It presents a tale of devotion, a story of the power of one’s aspiration and how the power of a pure aspiration can so beautifully manifest through time and space, and more importantly through life and death.

Core Concepts: Pema Lingpa’s spiritual contributions to building Bhutan as a nation state.

Link: Video on Bhutanese remembers a Bhutanese

38. Importance of Remembering Pema Lingpa

Description: In this video, the BBSC producer Sonam speaks with historian Karma Phuntsho and film maker Pawo Chonying Dorji on the importance of remembering Pema Lingpa.

Core Concepts: Pema Lingpa’s spiritual contribution to Bhutan.

Link: Video on celebrating Tertoen Pema Lingpa

39. The Early Life of Tertoen Pema Lingpa

Description: Page 18-23 of the draft textbook present the early life Tertoen Pema Lingpa, discovery of treasure and his influences on Buddhism.
Core Concepts: Discovery of treasures from Mebartsho and religious dances composed by Pema Lingpa. 

Link: PDF on Citizenship Education (draft), class VII, 2021

40. Reasons for Guru Rinpoche’s Visits to Bhutan

Description: Reasons for Guru Rinpoche’s visits to Bhutan are clearly presented in p.g.11-17 of the textbook. It also present the various modalities followed by Guru Rinpoche to spread Buddhism.

Core Concepts: Guru Rinpoche’s visit to Bhutan, conversion of anti-Buddhist to Buddhism, and different ways followed by Guru Rinpoche to subdue anti-Buddhists. 

Link: PDF on a History of Bhutan, course book for class IX 

41. How Phajo Gained the Faith of the People

Description: It is an online history course book for class IX. Page 35-37 of the textbook present how Phajo gained the faith of the people. It also present how Phajo had gained considerable influence in neighbouring countries besides his influence in western Bhutan.

Core Concepts: Greater power of Phajo over Lhapas and establishment of several temples and monasteries as legacy of Phajo. 

Link: PDF on a History of Bhutan course book for class IX

42. Contributions of Zhabdrung

Description: The contributions of Zhabdrung for the emergence of Bhutan as a Nation State such as the unification of Bhutan, establishment of Choe-sid system, codification of law and creation of unique national identities are stated in page 1-6.

Core Concepts: Unification of Bhutan, creation of unique national identities, codification of laws, and establishment of Choe-sid Nyiden system as a legacy of Zhabdrung Namgyal.

Link: PDF on History of Bhutan, a supplementary text for class XII

43. Lam Drukpa Kuenley

Description: This online article talks about the early years and unique approaches Lam Drukpa Kuenley followed for teaching Drukpa Doctrine.

Core Concepts: Lam Drukpa Kuenley’s unique approaches to teaching Vajrayana Buddhism in Bhutan

Link: Webpage on treasury of lives