Biology - Class XII Resources

The following list of online resources are provided as a sample of curated resources. New resources shall be added as we come across interesting and relevant online materials.

1. Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

Description: Webpages, video, or online pieces that provide scientific explanation on how eukaryotic cells (e.g., plant cells, animal cells, etc.) are different from prokaryotic cells (e.g., bacteria, cyanobacteria, etc.), or how eukaryotic cells are more advanced than prokaryotic cells.

Core Concepts: Differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

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2. Evolution of Eukaryotic Cells from Prokaryotic Cells

Description: Journal article, webpage, or e-book that provide scientific explanation on the evolution of eukaryotic cells (e.g., plant cells, animal cells, etc.) from prokaryotic cells (e.g., bacteria, cyanobacteria, etc.). 

Core Concepts: Evolution of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic cells.

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3. Cartilage and Bone

Description: Webpage or online piece that provides scientific accounts on bones and cartilages, types of bones and cartilages, and organization (structural arrangement of bones and cartilages-both at cellular and macro-level) of bones and cartilages.

Core Concepts: Support and movement systems.

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4. Structure of Skeletal Muscle, Muscle Fibre (muscle cell/myocyte), and Myofibril

Description: Webpages or online pieces that provide scientific account on skeletal muscle, muscle fibre (muscle cell/myocyte), and myofibril.

Core Concepts: support and movement systems.

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5. Skeletal Muscle Contraction

Description:  Webpages or online pieces that offer scientific explanation on how muscle contraction is triggered or  caused by the physiological changes (biochemical) that occur inside the myofibrils.

Core Concepts: Support and movement systems.

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6. Bones, Muscles, and Joints

Description: Webpages, videos, and online pieces that takes a dig at how muscles coordinate to move joints and bones. 

Core Concepts: Support and movement systems.

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7. Human Digestive System

Description: Webpages or online pieces that provide scientific accounts onto human digestive system, mechanical and chemical digestion (action by digestive enzymes), and absorption of the digested food particles.  

Core Concepts: Human digestive system and digestion.

Links:

8. Food, Nutrition, Health and Fitness

Description: Journal articles, online pieces, and webpages that offer glimpse onto nutrients required by the body , balanced diet, healthy dietary patterns, and likely adverse effects of unhealthy dietary patterns. 

Core Concepts: Nutrients required by the body and dietary patterns

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9. Respiration, and Aerobic vs Anaerobic Respiration

Description: Webpage, online piece, or videos with scientific explanation on respiration as a biochemical process that supply energy to body activities, types of respiration, and aerobic respiration as more efficient process than anaerobic respiration. 

Core Concepts: Respiration as a biochemical process of releasing energy. 

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10. Cellular Respiration (Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, Electron Transport)

Description: Webpages or online articles that offer scientific account on the mechanisms of the cellular respiration, such as glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and electron transport as the means of producing ATP. 

Core Concepts: Food and Energy. 

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11. How Does the Nervous System Help us Respond?

Description: Online piece that explains the mechanism or physiological process by which nervous system, especially sensory receptors, central nervous system and the associated nerves, and effectors bring about response and coordination in response to various external or internal stimuli.

Core Concepts: Nervous coordination. 

Link: Webpage on how does the nervous system help us respond? (pages 1, 2, 3, 4, 5..)

12. Transmission of Nerve Impulses

Description: Webpages, videos, or online pieces that provide scientific explanation on the biochemical process of never impulse conduction. 

Core Concepts: Conduction of nerve impulses.

Links: 

13. Nephron Structure and Functions

Description: Webpages, video, or online pieces that give an insight onto the structural details of a nephron and various physiological process that happens at each part of a nephron (urine formation or micturition). 

Core Concepts: The physiology of a nephron.

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14. Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance

Description: Webpage or online piece that provides scientific explanation on the importance of osmoregulation and osmotic balance in the human body.

Core Concepts: The maintenance of osmotic balance in human body.

Link: Webpage on osmoregulation and osmotic balance

15. Types of Plant Tissues

Description: Online pieces that explains on types of plant tissues (meristematic and permanent tissues) 

Core Concepts: Plant tissues.

Link: Webpage on types of plant tissues

16. Three Types of Plant Tissue System and their Function (With Diagram)

Description: Webpage or online piece that provides explanation on three types of plant tissue system (Epidermal tissue, vascular tissue, and ground tissue) on the basis on their structures and functions.

Core Concepts: Plant tissue system.

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17. Photosystem 1 and Photosystem 2

Description: Video and online piece that offer scientific accounts on the concepts of photosystems, wavelengths of light, photosynthetic pigments, absorption spectrum, photosystem, steps of light reaction, photosystems, cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation

Core Concepts: Photosynthetic units.

Links: 

18. The Light-Dependent Reaction (Z scheme) or C3 Cycle

Description: Online piece or video with the explanation on  light-depended reaction (light reaction or Z scheme) and light-independent reaction (C3 cycle).

Core Concepts: Phases of photosynthesis.

Links: 

19. DNA Workshop (Protein Synthesis)

Description: Online piece that explains how genes are expressed in the form of character or traits through protein- mediated mechanism; or molecular, sub-cellular, or cellular mechanisms (e.g., Gene/DNA codes keratin protein and keratin proteins form hair)

Core Concepts: Gene expression in the form of traits or characters.

Link: Webpage on protein-mediated gene expression  

20. Central Dogma: Expression of Genetic Information or Genetic Code Through Transcription and Translation

Description: Online pieces or videos that explain the biological processes of gene expression or genetic information stored in the form of genetic code through translation and transcription.  

Core Concepts: Gene expression or central dogma.

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21. DNA Replication

Description: Video or webpage that provide scientific explanation on how DNA molecule replicate its faithful copy through semi-conservative replication method. 

Core Concepts: The replication of DNA.

Links: 

22. DNA, Part 1-Structure and Function

Description: Guided practice: Activity to model and understand DNA replication.

Core Concepts: DNA replication.

Link: Webpage on DNA part 1 structure and function

23. Protein Synthesis (Updated)

Description: Video that provides scientific account on the protein synthesis based on the process of translation and transcription.

Core Concepts: Expression of genes or genetic code or genetic information.

Link: Video on protein synthesis updated

24. Gene Therapy and Gene Editing

Description: Video, webpages, journal articles that gives explanation on the scientific procedures of gene therapy, applications of gene therapy, and social controversy surrounding the emerging medical technologies of gene therapy and gene editing.

Core Concepts: The treatment of faulty or incorrect genes through gene therapy.

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25. DNA Fingerprinting

Description: Webpages or journal articles that give explanation on the scientific procedures of DNA fingerprinting and its application. 

Core Concepts: DNA fingerprinting or profiling as the means of identification or solving identify crisis.

Links:

26. Biochemical Evolution of Life (Oparin and Haldane'es Theory)

Description: Webpages that provide insight onto biochemical mechanism of the evolution of life from the inorganic simple molecules proposed by Oparin and Haldane. 

Core Concepts: Origin of life from inorganic compounds.

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27. The Impact of Oxygen Evolution on the Primitive Earth

Description: Webpages, newspaper article, and journal articles that explain the consequences of oxygen evolution on the primitive earth.  

Core Concepts: Consequences of oxygen evolution.

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28. Evidences of Evolution

Description: Webpages, e-books and webpages that offer scientific explanation on evidences of evolution (anatomic and morphology, fossil, embryology, recapitulation theory, connecting and missing link, cellular and molecular evidence, etc.) 

Core Concepts: Evidences of evolution.

Links:

29. Lamarckian Theory of Evolution or Lamarckism or Theory of Inheritance of Acquired Characters

Description: Webpages that provides explanation on Lamarckism or Lamarckian theory of evolution (theory of acquired inheritance) proposed by Jean-Baptiste de Monet Lamarck.

Core Concepts: Lamarckian theory of evolution.

Links: 

30. Darwinian Theory of Evolution or Darwinism or Evolution through Natural Selection

Description: Webpages or online pieces that provide explanation on process of evolution or organism or simply  the evolution of organism through natural selection proposed by Charles Robert Darwin (Darwinism or Darwinian theory of evolution).

Core Concepts:  Evolution of organism through natural selection(creative force).

Links: 

31. Mutation Theory of Evolution

Description: Webpages or online pieces that provide explanation on process of evolution of organism through a molecular event or randomness called mutation proposed by Hugo de Varies. 

Core Concepts:  Evolution of organism through mutation.

Links: 

32. Neo-Darwinism or Modern Synthetic Theory of Evolution

Description: Webpages or online pieces that provide explanation on the modern synthetic theory of evolution or simply Neo-Darwinism. 

Core Concepts: Modern synthetic theory of evolution.

Links: 

33. Genetic Drift Theory (Evolution by Chance/Allelic Drift)

Description: Webpages or online pieces that provide scientific explanation on the evolution of population based on chance events, such as population crash, bottle neck effect, and founder effect. 

Core Concepts: Evolution by the chance events or allelic drift.

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34. Forces that Bring Evolution or Speciation

Description: Webpages, video, or online pieces that describes how the evolutionary forces, such as natural selection, genetic drift, and gene flow, etc., bring about the evolution of organisms (speciation).

Core Concepts: Forces that drive the evolution or speciation of organisms.

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35. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium 

Description: Video, webpages, or online pieces that lend scientific explanation on how the evolution of the population is determined by determining allele, genotype, or trait frequency using Hardy-Weinberg's principles of equilibrium.

Core Concepts: Determining the evolution of population using Hardy-Weinberg's equilibrium. 

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36. Genetic Basis of Natural Selection/ Microevolution

Description: Journal article, video, web page, or online piece that explains how natural selection at the genetic level (microevolution) changes the allele frequency, genotype frequency, or trait frequency in the naturally evolving  population of the organism. 

Core Concepts: Genetic basis of natural selection or evolution.

Links: 

37. Artificial Selection/Gene Technologies and Allele Frequency

Description: Journal article, video, web page, or online piece that explains how anthropogenic activities, such as artificial selection/intentional selection, gene technologies, hybridization, etc., causes evolution at the genetic level (microevolution) by changing the allele frequency, genotype frequency, or trait frequency in the artificially induced evolving population of the organism. 

Core Concepts: Anthropogenic activities and evolution.

Links: