Biology - Class X Resources

The following list of online resources are provided as a sample of curated resources. New resources shall be added as we come across interesting and relevant online materials.

1. Difference Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

Description: Webpages or online pieces that offers an insight onto how prokaryotic cells (bacteria, cyanobacteria, etc.) are different from eukaryotic cells(plant cell, animal cell, etc.) in terms of structures and functions of cell organelles.

Core Concepts: Differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.


2. Experiments on Osmosis

Description: Webpage or online piece that provides general ideas (suggestive methods) of how to set up an experiment to determine the movement of water from low concentration area to high concentration area(osmosis). 

Link: Webpage on experiments on osmosis

3. Importance of Light in Photosynthesis

Description: Simulation on the effect of light (e.g., intensity, wavelength, etc.) on the rate of the photosynthesis.

Core Concepts: Effect of light (intensity and wavelength) upon the rate of photosynthesis.

Link: Webpage on the effect of light upon the rate of photosynthesis

4. Light Reaction and Dark Reaction

Description: Webpage or online piece that provides scientific explanation accounting how light reaction and dark reaction occur in chloroplast, how they are linked by their products, and how they are different by their nature of reaction, site of reaction, and products.

Core Concepts: Light and dark reaction of photosynthesis.

Link: Website on light and dark reaction

5. Factors Affecting Photosynthesis

Description: Webpage or online piece that provides scientific explanation accounting how external factors or major factors, such as light intensity, carbon dioxide concentration, and temperature regulate the rate of photosynthesis; and law of limiting factor. 

Core Concepts:  Regulation of the rate of photosynthesis by light intensity, carbon dioxide concentration, and temperature; an law of limiting factor. 


6. Transportation in Plants

Description: Videos that provide scientific explanations on how food and water are transported (translocation) from one region to another region of the plants through vascular tissues (phloem and xylem).  

Core Concepts: Transportation of food and water in plants.


7. Digesting Food

Description: Video that describes how foods, such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are digested in different human digestive organs of the alimentary channel by various digestive enzymes.

Core Concepts: Digestion in of foods in human body.

Link: Video on digesting food

8. The Composition and Function of Blood

Description: Videos that describes the composition and functions of the human blood.

Core Concepts: Composition and function of human blood.


9. Blood Type Testing

Description: Webpage or online piece that describes ABO or Rh blood types based on antigens and antibodies, ABO and Rh incompatibilities, and their corresponding implications.

Core Concepts: ABO and Rh blood typing.

Link: Webpage on blood testing type

10. Role of Yeasts in Fermentation Process

Description: Journal article that explains how yeast as a micro-organism is used widely in the production of  food  and beverages. 

Core Concepts:  Use of yeast in food and beverages.

Link: Journal article on how yeast is used in the production of food and beverages

11.  Sex Hormones-Role in Reproductive Functions

Description: Webpage or online piece that provides scientific accounts as how human sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone) contribute towards the physiological development of human reproductive systems. 

Core Concepts: Biological roles of sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone).

Link: Webpage on sex hormones

12. Nephron and Urine Formation

Description: Video that explains the structures of nephrons and the role of nephrons in osmoregulation (removal of nitrogenous wastes in the form of urine).

Core Concepts: Discharging of nitrogenous wastes in the form of urine by nephron.

Link: Video on nephron and urine formation

13. Anaerobic Digestion

Description: Webpage or online piece that describes the scientific processes of anaerobic digestion in recycling or removing waste materials .

Core Concepts:  An anaerobic digestion in removing wastes.

Link: Webpage on anaerobic digestion

14. Replication and Distribution of DNA during Mitosis

Description: Webpages or online pieces that explain mitotic division (mitosis), stages of mitotic division with the behaviour of chromosomes, nucleus, and centrioles at each stage; and provides accounts why body cells (e.g., nerve cells, liver cells, etc.) irrespective of the function contain same genetic composition.  

Core Concepts: Body cells irrespective of their types contain same genetic composition.


15. Meiosis  

Description: Webpages or online pieces that explain the stages of meiotic division with the behaviour of chromosomes, nucleus, and centriole at each stage; and provides scientific account why gametes or sex cells contain differing genetic information by certain degree.

Core Concepts: Sex cells contain different genetic composition.


16. Genetic Variation

Description: Webpage with online article and videos that provide biological reasons or scientific accounts justifying why offspring differ amongst themselves as much as they differ from their parents.  

Core Concepts: Variation amongst offspring themselves and with their parents.

Link: Webpage on genetic variation

17. Mendelian Inheritance

Description: Webpages with videos and online pieces that explain how human autosomal-linked traits (e.g., eye colour) and sex-linked traits/diseases (e.g., colour blindness) are inherited from generation to generation based on the patterns of Mendelian inheritance. 

Core Concepts: Patterns of Inheritance of automsomal-linked traits (e.g., eye colour).


18. Punnett Squares and Sex-Linked Traits

Description: Video and webpage that explain how sex-linked traits or diseases, such as colour blindness and haemophilia  are transmitted or inherited from one generation to another (cross-cross inheritance).

Core Concepts: Inheritance of sex-linked diseases.


19. Natural Selection in Populations

Description: Web pages, videos, journal articles, or online piece that explain how natural selection at the genetic level (microevolution) changes the allele frequency, genotype frequency, or trait frequency in the natural population of the organism.  

Core Concepts: Genetic basis of natural selection.


20. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium | Biology

Description: Video, webpages, or online pieces that describe how the evolution of the population can be demonstrated by determining allele, genotype, or trait frequency through Hardy-Weinberg's equilibrium.

Core Concepts: Determining the evolution of population using Hardy-Weinberg's equilibrium. 


21. Mechanisms of Evolution

Description: Videos, webpages, or online articles that describe how the evolutionary forces, such as natural selection, genetic drift, and gene flow, etc., bring about the evolution of organisms (speciation).

Core Concepts: Forces that drive the evolution or speciation of organisms.


22. Are humans Driving Evolution in Animals?

Description: Newspaper article or journal articles that explain how humans or anthropogenic activities, such as intentional or manual selection (artificial selection), or gene technologies, such as hybridisation, genetic engineering, etc., lead to the evolution of organisms through the change of allele or trait frequency of the population. 

Core Concepts: Evolution of organisms as a result of anthropogenic activities (human-induced evolution) .