History & Civics - Class XI Resources

The following list of online resources are provided as a sample of curated resources. New resources shall be added as we come across interesting and relevant online materials.

1. Theories on the Origin of State

Description:  The article discusses the history and the criticism of six theories on the origin of the State. 

Core Concepts:  Theories on the origin of the State.

Link: Webpage on theories on the origin of State

2. Different Theories on the Origin of State

Description:  It is a lecture video on YouTube. Dr. Satish Kumar Jha argues that “the entire discourse on the origin of State is meant to provide legitimacy to the state authority.” He delves into the possible factors of the different theories on the origin of State.

Core Concepts:  Theories of origin of State.

Link: Video on lecture, theory and origin of State

3. Capitalism vs. Socialism: What's the Difference?

Description:  It is an article written by Osi Momoh. He compares the role of the government in the economy of a socialist country and a capitalist country.

Core Concepts:  Socialism and Capitalism.

Link: Webpage on capitalism vs. socialism: what's the difference? 

4. Capitalism vs. Socialism

Description:  It is a Soho Forum Debate on Youtube. Capitalism and Socialism, as an economic system, have their advantages and disadvantages. In this video, Wolff and Epstein debate on “socialism are preferable to capitalism as an economic system that promotes free, equality, and prosperity.”

Core Concepts:  Socialism and capitalism.

Link: Video on capitalism vs. socialism: a SoHo forum debate 

5. The Four Noble Truths

Description: It is a page on the Rigpa Shedra website on ‘The Four Noble Truths’. The Four Noble Truths are suffering, the origin of suffering, the cessation of suffering, and the path leading to the cessation of suffering.

Core Concepts:  The genesis of the three turnings of the Wheel of Dharma.

Link: Webpage on the Four Noble Truth

6. The Sūtra of the Wheel of Dharma

Description: This general Sūtra section includes the Four Noble Truth that has been translated from the Tibetan translation of the Sūtra of the Wheel of Dharma.it discusses Buddha’s first teaching following his attainment of awakening was the Sūtra of the Wheel of Dharma.

Core Concepts:  The genesis of the three turnings of the Wheel of Dharma.

Link: Webpage on Sutra of the Wheel of Dharma

7. The Sutra of the Heart of Transcendent Wisdom

Description: This page on Lotsawa House has the English translation of the Sutra of the Heart of Transcendent Wisdom, from the Words of the Buddha.

Core Concepts:  The genesis of the three turnings of the Wheel of Dharma.

Link: Webpage on the Sutra of the Heart of Transcendent Wisdom

8. Buddha’s Three Major Series of Teaching

Description: The page on the Rigpa Shedra briefly discusses the three turnings, Buddha’s three major series of teaching. This page also has links that will direct you to pages that discuss the three teachings in depth.

Core Concepts:  The genesis of the three turnings of the Wheel of Dharma.

Link: Webpage on three turnings

9. The Lankavatra Sutra

Description: It is the online version of The Lankavatra Sutra on the website Buddhasutra. It is divided into four chapters to discuss the following topics: Discrimination, False Imagination and knowledge of appearances, Right Knowledge or knowledge of relations, perfect knowledge or knowledge of reality.

Core Concepts:  The genesis of the three turnings of the Wheel of Dharma.

Link: Webpage on the Lankavatra Sutra

10. Establishment of Drukpa Kagyud

Description: The sixth chapter ‘Drukpa Kagyud: Its propagation in Bhutan’ of the textbook discusses the genealogy of Kagyud and great lamas of Drukpa Kagyud like Phajo Drugom Zhigpo, Terkhungpa, and Lam Drukpa Kuenley.

Core Concepts:  Establishment of Drukpa Kagyud tradition in Bhutan.

Link: Weblink on a History of Bhutan, course book for class IX, 2019

11. Bhutan’s Intangible Culture and its Evolution and Development

Description: The report shows Bhutan’s Intangible culture and its evolution and development.

Core Concepts:  Tangible and intangible cultural heritage.

Link: Webpage on intangible cultural heritage of Bhutan

12. Zorig Chusum

Description: The first chapter ‘Zorig Chusum: The Thirteen Traditional Crafts’examines the Bhutanese thirteen traditional crafts. The descriptions of the crafts are aided with pictures.

Core Concepts:  Salient features of secular and spiritual arts and crafts of Bhutan.

Link: Weblink on History of Bhutan, a supplementary text for class XI, 2019

13. Art, Architecture, and Handicrafts

Description: Chapter 6 of the A History of Bhutan, course book for class X is ‘Art, Architecture, and Handicrafts’. The chapter discusses the characteristics and purposes of the different art, architecture, and handicrafts of Bhutan.

Core Concepts:  Salient features of secular and spiritual arts and crafts of Bhutan, factors leading to the emergence of architecture, arts, and crafts in contemporary Bhutan, fusion of traditional and contemporary architecture, arts and crafts in Bhutan.

Link: Weblink on a History of Bhutan, course book for class X, 2019

14. Bhutanese Architecture and its Values

Description: It is a guideline on Bhutanese Architecture produced in 2014. This guideline shows the various elements of Bhutanese architecture and its values. Section one focuses on the Bhutanese architecture that has been practiced for many centuries in the country. Section two explores the new architectural designs and the various

Core Concepts:  Salient features of secular and spiritual arts and crafts of Bhutan, fusion of traditional and contemporary architecture, arts, and crafts in Bhutan.

Link: PDF on Bhutanese architecture guidelines (2014) 

15. Modern Art in Bhutan

Description: It is a YouTube Video on Modern Art in Bhutan. The video takes us to VAST, Voluntary Artists Studio. It shows how modern art has progressed over the years in modern Bhutan.

Core Concepts:  Fusion of traditional and contemporary architecture, arts, and crafts in Bhutan.

Link: Video on modern art in Bhutan

16. Bhutan’s Cultural Heritage to Strengthen the Sovereignty of the Country

Description: The news article emphasizes the importance of the sustenance and continuity of Bhutan’s cultural heritage to strengthen the sovereignty of the country. The government has come up with various programs to strengthen the cultural heritage and promote the national language and local indigenous languages.

Core Concepts:  Importance of architecture, arts and crafts in strengthening cultural Identity.

Link: Webpage on Bhutan's  aims to reinforce and promote it's cultural identity 

17. Improving the Resilience of Bhutan’s Cultural Heritage Sites

Description: Bhutan’s cultural heritage is vulnerable to disasters as it has been for centuries. This YouTube video shows how Bhutan is prepared to take on the challenge.

Core Concepts: Importance of architecture, arts and crafts in strengthening cultural identity.

Link: Video on improving the resilience of Bhutan’s cultural heritage 

18. Bhutanese Identity

Description: It is an article in The Druk Journal titled “What makes you not a Bhutanese?” Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche poses multiple premises to analyse what makes one a Bhutanese. He argues that the definition of Bhutanese identity has and will fluctuate from person to person if we, Bhutanese, do not self-critically analyse our identity.

Core Concepts: Construction of Bhutanese identity.

Link: Webpage on what makes you not Bhutanese?