Geography - Class XII Resources

The following list of online resources are provided as a sample of curated resources. New resources shall be added as we come across interesting and relevant online materials.

1. The Origin of the Universe

Description: PDF material showing The Origin of the Universe with different models.

Core Concepts: Flat-Earth Cosmologies, Geocentric models, Heliocentric models, discovery of the galaxy, Big bang Theory, does the Big Bang explain everything?

Link: PDF on the origin of the universe

2. Gaseous Hypothesis of Kant

Description: Video on Gaseous Hypothesis by Kant.

Core Concepts: Primordial matter, Nebula, Newton’s law of gravitation, Rotational motion.

Link: Video on gaseous hypothesis of Kant

Description: Writeup material on Gaseous Hypothesis by Kant - Shakti IAS Academy.

Core Concepts: Newton’s law of gravitation. Merits and demerits of Kant’s hypothesis.

Link: Webpage on the writeup material on gaseous hypothesis

3. Gaseous Mass Hypothesis

Description: PPT on Gaseous Mass Hypothesis by Immanuel Kant.

Core Concepts: Primordial matter, gravitational force, angular velocity.

Link: PPT on gaseous mass hypothesis

4. Electromagnetic Theory

Description: Video on Electromagnetism- The Glue of the Universe.

Core Concepts: Protons, electrons, attractive forces, structure of matters.

Link: Video on electromagnetism: the glue of the universe

5. Working Population

Description: Material on working population by economy watch 2010.

Core Concepts: What is the working population? Why is it relevant? How is it calculated? Employment, employment law.

Link: Webpage on working population

6. Migration

Description: Writeup along with a video on Migration.

Core Concepts: International migration, forced migration, voluntary migration, emigration, immigration, social and environmental migration.

Link: Webpage on migration

7. Urbanization

Description: Video on Urbanisation, a panel discussion.

Core Concepts: Classification of urban centres: cities, metropolis, megapolis, Functions of urban centres, facilities in urban centres, and impact of urbanisation.

Link: Video on urbanization

8. Glacier

Description: A writeup material on glacier with illustrations.

Core Concepts: Glacial period, how glaciers are formed, glacial features, threat to glaciers, third pole.

Link: Webpage on glacier

9. Agents of Gradation

Description: Video on agents of Gradation explaining the role played by glaciers as an agent of gradation and as well as the landforms.

Core Concepts: Rivers of ice, snowfield, continental glacier, valley or alpine glacier, landforms formed by glaciers.

Link: Video on agents of gradation

10. Panel Discussion

Description: Video on the third pole- Asia’s frozen reservoir ( a panel discussion).

Core Concepts: Climate change, migration, natural resources, vast glacier network of Himalayan region, GLOF, water supply.

Link: Video on the third pole

11. Global Warming

Description: Video on facts, causes and effects of global warming.

Core Concepts: Global warming, causes, effects and consequences.

Link: Webpage on global warming

12. Fluvial Processes and Landforms

Description: Video on fluvial processes and related landforms.

Core Concepts: Fluvial processes, abrasion, attrition, erosion- downcutting, corrosion and saltation.

Link: Webpage on geomorphology and allied concepts

13. Cycle of Erosion by W.M. DAVIS

Description: A PPT material on cycle of erosion by WM Davis.

Core Concepts: Cycle of erosion, factors of erosion, endogenetic and exogenetic forces, cycle model of Davis, stages of river.

Link: PPT on cycle of erosion

14. Humidity

Description: Video showing what is humidity?

Core Concepts: Water vapour, relative humidity, rate of evaporation, condensation, saturated water, dew point temperature.

Link: Video on humidity

15. Relative Humidity

Description: An animated video on relative humidity?

Core Concepts: Amount of water vapour, atmospheric pressure, condensation, saturation point.

Link: Video on what is relative humidity

16. Calculating Relative Humidity

Description: Video showing how to calculate relative humidity.

Core Concepts: Specific humidity, absolute humidity, relative humidity.

Link: Video on calculating relative humidity

17. Types of Condensation

Description: Video showing different forms of condensation with explanation and examples.

Core Concepts: Frost, dew, fog, mist and clouds.

Link: Video on types of condensation

18. Types of Precipitation

Description: Video on precipitation with explanation.

Core Concepts: Snow, rain, freezing rain, sleet and hail.

Link: Video on types of precipitation

19. The Koppen System

Description: Video on Koppen climate classification system with examples.

Core Concepts: Four main types: Type A. Type B, Type C, Type E.

Link: Video on the Koppen system

20. Types of Rocks

Description: A writeup on types of rocks with examples.

Core Concepts: Sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks, rock cycle.

Link: Video on types of rocks

21. How to Identify Soil Types

Description: Video showing soil types with its properties.

Core Concepts: Soil types, identification, texture, colour.

Link: Video on how to identify soil types

22. Unemployment

Description: A writeup material on unemployment: a problem that will never go away by Kuensel.

Core Concepts: 

Link: webpage on unemployment: a problem that will never go away

Description: A writeup on the unemployment issue by the Bhutanese.

Link: webpage on unemployment issues

Description: Write up material on unemployment rates around the world.

Link: webpage on unemployment rates around the world

23. Fertility and Mortality

Description: Writeup material on fertility and mortality.

Core Concepts: Writeup material on fertility and mortality.

Link: webpage on fertility and mortality

24. Bhutan DRP Overview

Description: Writeup on South Asia Network on dams, rivers and people (SANDRP).

Core Concepts: Third pole, hydro power sector, floods, GLOF.

Link: webpage on Bhutan DRP overview

25. Bhutan Banks on ‘White Gold’ Hydro Power

Description: Video showing the hydropower as ‘white gold’.

Core Concepts: Self sufficient country, protection of the environment.

Link: Video on white gold hydro power

26. Alternative Energy

Description: A writeup on alternative energy.

Core Concepts: Types of alternative energy, alternative and renewable energy.

Link: Webpage on what is alternative energy

27. Renewable Energy

Description: Writeup on renewable energy.

Core Concepts: Types of renewable energy, renewable energy worldwide, future of renewable energy.

Link: Webpage on renewable energy

28. Animation on how HEP Works

Description: Animated video on hydropower.

Core Concepts: Dams and runoff.

Link: Video on animation on how HEP works

29. Cartography

Description: Cartography images.

Core Concepts: History of cartography, map making.

Link: Webpage on cartography images

Description: Animated video on Cartography with writeup.

Core Concepts: History of cartography, map making.

Link: Webpage and video on what is cartography

Description: Video on Cartography.

Core Concepts: Map making, communication of geography phenomena, art, spatial component with art.

Link: Video on what is cartography

Description: Video on Cartography and Cartographer.

Core Concepts: Map making.

Link: Video on cartography for kids

30. Surveying and Mapping Science

Description: Writeup on surveying and mapping science.

Core Concepts: 

Link: Webpage surveying and mapping science

31. Plane Table Surveying

Description: Writeup on plane table surveying.

Core Concepts: Drawing board, alidade, spirit level, trough compass, tripod.

Link: Webpage plane table surveying

32. Global Positioning System

Description: Writeup on global positioning system.

Core Concepts: Segments of GPS, how it works, sources of errors.

Link: DOC on introduction on global positioning system

33. Remote Sensing

Description: Introduction to remote sensing - a writeup.

Core Concepts: History of RS, foundations of RS, aerial photography, satellite sensor systems.

Link: Webpage on introduction to remote sensing

34. What is Remote Sensing and How is it Used?

Description: Video along with a writeup on what is remote sensing and how is it used.

Core Concepts: Environmental RS, satellite images, uses of RS.

Link: Video on remote sensing and how it is used

35. What is GIS?

Description: Video on GIS.

Core Concepts: Types of GIS, vector and raster, uses of GIS.

Link: Video on what is GIS

36. How GPS Works?

Description: Animated video on how GPS works today.

Core Concepts: What is GPS, uses of GPS, basic parts.

Link: Video on how GPS works today

37. Uses of GPS

Description: Video on the use of GPS in different activities.

Core Concepts: How it works, uses, advantages and disadvantages.

Link: Video on uses of GPS

Description: A writeup on the role of GPS in navigation.

Core Concepts: GPS elements, satellite in space, receivers, uses, navigation.

Link: Writeup on uses of GPS

38. GPS, Remote Sensing and GIS

Description: Video on GPS, RS and GIS.

Core Concepts: What are GPS, RS and GIS, how they work, uses, features.

Link: Video on GPS, remote sensing and GIS

39. What is Spatial Data?

Description: Writeup on spatial data.

Core Concepts: Vector, raster, attributes, geographic coordinate system, georeferencing and geocoding.

Link: Webpage on spatial data

40. Spatial vs Non Spatial

Description: A slide share on spatial versus non spatial.

Core Concepts: Spatial data, non spatial data, vector.

Link: Webpage on spatial vs non spatial

41. Difference Between Spatial and Non Spatial Data

Description: Writeup on the difference between spatial and non spatial data.

Core Concepts: Spatial data, non spatial data.

Link: Webpage on difference between spatial and non spatial data

42. The World’s Biomes

Description: Writeup on the world’s biomes.

Core Concepts: Classification of biomes, conservation and preservation of biomes.

Link: Webpage on world's biomes

43. Satellite Navigation-GPS

Description: Video on satellite navigation.

Core Concepts: Satellite navigation, accuracy, how it works.

Link: Webpage on satellite navigation